A photometry calibration.
munipack phcal [.. parameters ..] file(s)[,result(s)]
Purpose of this routine is the photometry calibration of CCD frames. The calibration establish an exact relation between observed instrumental counts and expected amount of photons by using a (small) set of known calibration stars. On base of the calibration, all known objects and the image itself should be transformed from instrumental counts to aboslute fluxes of photons, energy or magnitudes.
Every single picture elements exposed by light for a time period is collecting electrons created due to photo-electric effect from photons. Counts of the electrons is digitised and stored in output images. One can be directly used for additional light analysis. We will use term (instrumental) count(s) for their calculated amount (widely used by astronomers).
For a non-ideal detector, amount of digitised electrons will less than for photons. These counts will depends on the instrumental equipment (quality of optical path, lenses, mirrors, weather, quantum efficiency of CCD camera, etc). As consequence of the measurement process, the counts is unique per an apparatus and observation conditions. Two telescopes equipped with the same instrumentation will not product the same counts due to atmospheric conditions. The different apparatus (filters, detectors) generally produces different counts. To compare and to process observations from different observatories, we need unify all observations to same scales. Traditionally, in various parts of physics, the calibration is done with setting of calibration scale on a priory known calibrated sources. The sources are calibration stars for astronomers. The scale is relation between observed counts and produced photons.
More detailed description of the calibration can be found in Photometry Overview.
The calibration implemented by Munipack follows these steps:
Image data values are converted on a physical quantity (like photons, fluxes, magnitudes). The conversion is applied on frame data as well as on photometric tables. The conversion requires known astrometry and photometry calibration.
The conversion is very useful for converting observed quantities to a derived ones. One is ideal for construction of multi-spectral pictures of objects.
The calibration is computed by the way:
When photometry transformation table from instrumental to standard system is available --tratab, the counts are transformed from instrumental to a relative standard counts and the calibration is performed on the kind of counts.
Photometry calibration is a very complex task so various ways are implemented:
The choice suitable for specific situation would be very difficoult.
Needs both astrometry and instrumental photometry of frames.
Headers would contain all the exposure time, filter, telescope area and photometry system keywords.
Specify photometric system (a conventional set of filters). Default is used value from frame header, use it when value is missing or needs correction. The option is important while determining of photometry calibration.
Specify filter. Default is used value from frame header, use it when value is missing or needs correction. The filter is important while determining of photometry calibration.
When calibrated frame contains FWHM parameter, the first aperture larger then the radius is used. When the parameter missing, the first aperture or user provided aperture is used.
The exposure time, filter, gain, area and an instrumental photometry system are absolutely necessory for calibration and none of them can not be omitted. At first, all values are obtained by reading of headers of FITS files. If at least one is not found, the calibration process is stopped (a wrong calibration which looks as valid is much more worse than any fail).
The situation can be solved by the ways:
$ munipack fits --key-update AREA=1,'[m] telescope area' huge.fitsfor all missing parameters.
$ munipack phcal ... --area 1 --photsys-instr 'MONTEBOO' ... frames.fitsThe convenience options doesn't supply common keywords (exptime, filter and gain) which can be usually found in frames.
While common values of exposure times, filters etc. are included to every header, the keywords can differ from Munipack's defaults. In the case, set ones via environment variables.
Output calibrated fits frames contains a new extension described in Photometry Calibrated File. Its table contains coordinates of stars on frames and various photometric quantities.
See Common options for input/output filenames.
When options for the area and the reference and instrumental systems are used, FITS header is updated according to provided values.
Default values for coordinates will be usually unsatisfactory.
See Common options for input/output filenames. If advanced parameters -O are not set, default -O --mask '!\1_XXX.\2' is used according to some selected quantity. For example, -q MAG and the input file blazar_01R.fits will produce the output file blazar_01R_MAG.fits. Be warned, that output files are overwritten in any case by default.
The table is a fits table and must contains columns with Right Ascension, Declination, reference magnitudes (and optionally with standard errors of the magnitudes). The column naming is by default RA, DEC, MAG and can be changed with --col-* options.
The table may be prepared by any standard FITS utility (for example fcreate utility of FTOOLS).
To save the time, you can just edit file mtable.lst in Munipack distribution (carefully handle with NAXIS1 and NAXIS2, etc.) and create a table
$ munipack fits --restore mtable.lst
The output in mtable.fits can be used to a right frame as
$ munipack phcal -c mtable.fits frame.fits
We are using just one filter. No transformation matrix is used.
We are using multiple filters. Transformation matrix is used, we get the maximum possible precision.
Calibrate against to UCAC5 catalogue:
$ munipack cone -c UCAC5 -o 0716cat.fits -r 0.1 110.47 71.34 $ munipack phcal -c 0716cat.fits --col-ra RAJ2000 --col-dec DEJ2000 \ --col-mag Gmag --photosys Johnson 0716_?R.fits $ munipack phcal -c T_Phe.fits --tratab phfotran.fits --col-mag B,V,R,I \ TPhe_B.fits,b.fits TPhe_V.fits,v.fits TPhe_R.fits,r.fits TPhe_I.fits,i.fits
munipack phcal --verbose -r grb140423-2_C_0002_cal.fits --photsys-ref Johnson grb140423-2_C_0003.fits
Photometic System Transformation, Common Options, Photometry Format, Photometry Overview.